10.46.2 A Unit Test Box

Tests are written in normal Prolog. A unit test is a named collection of individual tests, enclosed within the directives:

     :- begin_tests(Unit[,Options]).


     :- end_tests(Unit).

They can be embedded inside a normal source module, or be placed in a separate test-file that loads the files to be tested. The individual tests are defined by rules of the form:

     test(Name[,Options]) :- test-body.

where Name is a ground term and Options is a list describing additional properties of the test. Here is a very simple example:

     :- begin_tests(lists).
     :- use_module(library(lists)).
     test(reverse) :-
             reverse([a,b], [b,a]).
     :- end_tests(lists).

The optional second argument of the unit test declaration as well as of the individual test-heads defines additional processing options. The following options are available:

The test is currently disabled. Tests are flagged as blocked if they cannot be run for some reason. E.g. they crash Prolog, they rely on some service that is not available, they take too much resources, etc. Tests that fail but do not crash, etc. should be flagged using fixme(Fixme). Reason should be an atom.
Similar to blocked(Fixme), but the test it executed anyway. A summary is printed at the end of the test run. Reason should be an atom.
Pre-condition for running the test. If the condition fails, the test is skipped. The condition can be used as an alternative to the setup option. The only difference is that failure of a condition skips the test and is considered an error when using the setup option. Goal should be a callable.
Available for individual test rules only. Unless this keyword appears in the option list, nondeterminate success of the test-body is considered an error.
Available for individual test rules only. Runs the same test for each solution of Generator. Each run invokes the setup and cleanup handlers. This can be used to run the same test with different inputs. If an error occurs, the test is reported as ‘name (forall bindings = vars)’, where vars indicates the bindings of variables in Generator, which should be a callable.
Goal is run before the test-body. Typically used together with the cleanup option to create and destroy the required execution environment. Goal should be a callable.
Goal is always called after completion of the test-body, regardless of whether it fails, succeeds or raises an exception. This option or call_cleanup/2 must be used by tests that require side-effects that must be reverted after the test completes. Goal may share variables with a setup option and should be a callable:
     :- use_module(library(file_systems)).
     create_file(Tmp) :-
             open(temp(plunit), write, Out, [if_exists(generate_unique_name)]),
             current_stream(Tmp, write, Out),
             portray_clause(Out, hello(_World)),
     test(read, [setup(create_file(Tmp)), cleanup(delete_file(Tmp))]) :-
             Term = hello(_).

The following options specify how to verify the result of the test-body, and are only available for individual test rules. It is not meaningful to specify more than one of them:

The test-body as well as the goal Test must succeed. Test defaults to true and should be a callable that typically shares variables with the test-body. This is the same as inserting the test at the end of the conjunction, but makes the test harness print a “wrong answer” message as opposed to a general failure message:
          test(badadd, [true(A =:= 4)]) :-
                  A is 1 + 2.

will yield the error message:

          ! /home/matsc/sicstus4/doc/foo.pl:11:
          !       test badadd: wrong answer (compared using =:=)
          !     Expected: 4
          !     Got:      3

all(AnswerTerm Cmp Instances)
Similar to true(AnswerTerm Cmp Instances), but used if you want to collect all solutions to a nondeterminate test. AnswerTerm should share variables with the test-body. Let All be the list of instances of AnswerTerm for each solution. Then the goal Cmp(All,Instances) must succeed. The tests in the example below are equivalent:
          test(all1, all(X == [1,2])) :-
                  (X = 1 ; X = 2).
          test(all2, true(Xs == [1,2])) :-
                  findall(X, (X = 1 ; X = 2), Xs).

set(AnswerTerm Cmp Instances)
Similar to all(AnswerTerm Cmp Instances), but sorts the AnswerTerm instances before the comparison. The tests in the example below are equivalent:
          test(set1, set(X == [1,2])) :-
                  (X = 2 ; X = 1 ; X = 1).
          test(set2, true(Ys == [1,2])) :-
                  findall(X, (X = 2 ; X = 1 ; X = 1), Xs),
                  sort(Xs, Ys).

The test-body must fail.
The test-body must raise an exception Raised that is checked wrt. Expected using terms:subsumeschk(Expected, Raised). I.e. the raised exception must be more specific than the specified Expected.
A shorthand for exception(error(ISO,Info)). Info defaults to an anonymous variable.

10.46.3 Writing the Test-Body

The test-body is ordinary Prolog code. Without any options, the test-body must be designed to succeed determinately. Any other result is considered a failure. One of the options fail, true, exception or error can be used to specify a different expected result. In this subsection we illustrate typical test-scenarios by testing built-in and library predicates.

Send feedback on this subject.