10.17 Random Number Generator—library(random)
This library module provides a random number generator using
algorithm AS 183 from the Journal of Applied Statistics
as the basic algorithm.
Exported predicates:
getrand(
RandomState)

returns the random number generator's current state
setrand(
+RandomState)

sets the random number generator's state to RandomState.
If RandomState is not a valid random state, it reports
an error, and then fails.
maybe

succeeds determinately with probability 1/2,
fails with probability 1/2. We use a separate "random bit"
generator for this test to avoid doing much arithmetic.
maybe(
+Probability)
 succeeds determinately with probability Probability,
fails with probability 1Probability.
Arguments =< 0 always fail, >= 1 always succeed.
maybe(
+P,
+N)
 succeeds determinately with probability P/N,
where 0 =< P =< N and P and N are integers.
If this condition is not met, it fails.
It is equivalent to
random(0, N, X), X < P
, but is somewhat faster.
random(
Uniform)

unifies Uniform with a new random number in [0.0,1.0)
random(
+L,
+U,
R)
 unifies R with a random integer in [L,U)
when L and U are integers (note that U will never be generated),
or to a random floating number in [L,U) otherwise.
random_member(
Elem,
+List)

unifies Elem with a random element of List, which must be proper.
Takes O(N) time (average and best case).
random_select(
?Elem,
?List,
?Rest)

unifies Elem with a random element of List and Rest with all the
other elements of List (in order). Either List or Rest should
be proper, and List should/will have one more element than Rest.
Takes O(N) time (average and best case).
random_subseq(
+List,
Sbsq,
Cmpl)

unifies Sbsq with a random subsequence of List, and Cmpl with its
complement. After this,
subseq(List, Sbsq, Cmpl)
will be true.
Each of the 2**List solutions is equally likely. Like its
namesake subseq/3
, if you supply Sbsq and Cmpl it will interleave
them to find List. Takes O(N) time. List should be proper.
random_permutation(
?List,
?Perm)

unifies Perm with a random permutation of List. Either List or Perm
should be proper, and they should/will have the same length. Each of
the N! permutations is equally likely, where
length(List, N)
.
This takes O(N lg N) time and is bidirectional.
random_perm2(
A,
B,
X,
Y)

unifies X,Y = A,B or X,Y = B,A, making the choice at random,
each choice being equally likely. It is equivalent to
random_permutation([A,B], [X,Y])
.
random_numlist(
+P,
+L,
+U,
List)

where P is a probability (0..1) and L=<U are integers
unifies List with a random subsequence of the integers L..U,
each integer being included with probability P.
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